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Oddział Łódzki PTH

Zarząd Główny PTH

Instytut Historii UŁ

Przegląd Nauk Historycznych

Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia historica

TOM 56, 2009


   Krzysztof Latocha, Tadeusz Nowak, The Nałęcz family in Łęczyca county in late Middle Ages

   The article concerns a few, and in the opinion of its authors the most important and interesting families of the Nałęcz coat of arms, which owned estates in the Łęczyca voivodeship in the late Middle Ages. Sometimes as a result of the growth and the divisions of properties each branch took a new family name. Nevertheless, since they descended from the common ancestor, the branches: Malscy, Wilkowscy, Goliccy, Żabiccy, Odechowscy, Cichosławiccy, Małachowscy, Sokolniccy, Dybowscy, should be discussed together. In some cases the sources mention the owners of some shares in the villages generally belonging to Nałęcz clan, but their family affiliation could not be confirmed. The authors believe that further research will reveal their respective family affiliations and links that bound them with Nałęcz. The source material, mainly the Land and the Castle Registers of Łęczyca district, allows us to start the research of the members of the family in the Łęczyca district not before the end of the 14th century. The attempts to find information about the earlier generations as well as to specify relations between the aforementioned families require many hypotheses, therefore they should stand for a subject of a separate article.

   Mariusz Stępniewski, Zdzisław Szambelan, The territorial development of Lodz in the light of the documents and cartographic sources

   Based on the analysis of the rich cartographic sources available in the National Archives in Lodz, the authors presented consecutive stages of the spacial development of the city of Lodz. Lodz was dynamically developing in XIX century and needed new territories. The fi rst regulation was signed in 1821, when the city’s surface got enlarged of 188 ha. The next one comes from 1840, the moment when Lodz was the main textile industry center in Poland. In that moment the shape of the city got to be denser, oval-shaped and the surface extended up to 2739 ha. In 1906, the tsar authorities decided to attach the nearby villages to the city of Lodz, but it didn’t satisfy the city’s necessities. Not until 1915 the German authorities decided to proceed with the largest, as far as now, incorporation (2064 ha). Those were the city limits until 1940. That year Germans extended drastically the city limits, making the city few times bigger. After the World War II, the polish goverment decided to return to the regulations from 1939. In 1946 several villages and settlements were attached to the city of Lodz, so the city surface was 21 201 ha. Other incorporations took place in consecutive years. The last one comes from 1988, when the city surface extended for 7890. Nowadays the city’s surface is 29 325 ha.

   Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak, Theodore Tripplin’s „Trips to Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Rawa district”

   The article contains a comprehensive biography of Dr. Theodore Teuttold Stilichon Tripplin (1813-1881), a Polish physician, writer and author of numerous travel novels, and also a precursor of the science fiction literature in Poland. In 1858 he published four volumes of Journeys of a Polish Physician across His Own Country. In the third volume (pp. 28-38) T. Tripplin gives a not commonly known description of his short trip from Warsaw to the town of Tomaszów Mazowiecki (located in the district of Rawa Mazowiecka). Tripplin’s trip in question took place in December 1849. Tripplin’s relation is one of the earliest descriptions of Tomaszów Mazowiecki, as well as of its inhabitants, in history.
   In his interesting relation Tripplin mentions two signifi cant persons of the local intellectual elite: Friedrich Stumpf (1791-1868), a local manufacturer of German origin, and Johann Jakob Benni (1800-1863), the first pastor of Tomaszów Mazowiecki. Tripplin gives a vivid and somewhat spiteful presentation of F. Stumpf, whereas Benni and his family are described with great attention and reverence. The writer stressed that the observable education of Benni’s three young sons was an English one, but accompanied with love for the country of their choice (Poland). The future has demonstrated that Tripplin’s words were prophetic. The Bennis, sons of a Jewish neophyte and a British woman, became great Polish patriots, who won fame and respect outside of their home town.
   It is worth emphasizing that Tomaszów Mazowiecki was strongly connected with Tripplin’s family of French (Huguenot) origin. Theodore’s father Friedrich Christian Ludwig Tripplin (1776-1840), died in Tomaszów and was buried there in the Lutheran Cemetery. Also Theodore’s mother Fryderyka Julianna Wilhelmina Tripplin née Horn (1787-1862), who was a daughter of the well known Swedish family of the barons of Horn, lived 25 years in Tomaszów (1838-1862). Finally, Ludwik Tassilio Tripplin (1814-1864), Theodore’s younger brother, was buried in the Evangelical cemetery in Tomaszów Mazowiecki. However, Theodore Tripplin died 25th January 1881 in Warsaw and he was buried two days later at the local Protestant Cemetery.

   Włodzimierz Berner, Professional, social and scietnific activity of dermatologists and venereologists at the turn of the 19th and 20th century (until 1918)

   At the turn of the 19th and the 20th centurie among the doctor of the city of Łódź rendering medical services to the city population dermatologists and venereologists played a significant role. The first specialist in this field appeared in Łódź in 1887, in 1895 there were 6 of them, in 1900-1913, and in 1913-1924. Doctors treating skin and venereal diseases apart from a private practice also worked at public hospitals, foundations, outpatients’ department as well as at public and private clinics. The majority of doctors were well prepared professionals who had studied in Warsaw or besides the Kingdom of Poland, e.g. in Berlin, Dorpat (at present Tartu) or Vienna, where they some specialized under the supervision of the outstanding clinicians. They shared their knowledge and experience in patient treatment at the informative and scientific meetings of the Łódź Medical Society and the Łódź Division of the Warsaw Hygienic Society, as well as during medical conferences. The presented most interesting clinical cases of dermatological and venereal diseases (frequently with patients’ participation) and gave lectures, many of which were published in Polish and foreign medical journals. Such doctors as Jakub Birencweig, Zygmunt Golc, Adam Grosglik, Jakub Leyberg, Wincenty Littauer, Bruno Margulies and Emanuel Sonnenberg, distinguished themselves in their charitable activity and scientific research among the group of dermatologists and venereologists of those times.

   Paweł Samuś, Women in the socialist movement in the Kingdom of Poland in the years of Revolution 1905-1907

   Women played an active and significant role in the Polish socialist movement since 1870s. The revolutionary events of 1905-1907 were the turning point in the process of arousing political aspirations among women and increasing their participation in political life of the Kingdom of Poland. This period saw a surge of popular interest in politics on a scale unseen before. With the political and social life gaining impetus, political parties became mass organizations. The revolutionary mood encouraged many women from the working class, intelligentsia, as well as other groups of hired workers, to join their ranks. Hundreds of nameless activists were active in socialist parties, trade unions, cultural and educational societies. There were also famous distinguished activists performing important functions, drawing up parties programmes or commenting on current affairs.

   Dariusz Szlawski, The organization and structure of the public schools primary school-system in Łódź (1918-1939)

   After the First World War, Łódź, second in terns of size polish city, was neglected in education; majority of inhabitants couldn’t read and write. In the period of the First World War occurred important initiatives developing the elementary school-system, but these executions were possible just in conditions of independent state.
   In February 1919 the polish government issued a law about introducing in Poland obligatory primary schoolsystem for children in the age 7-14 years old. Łódź was the first community in Poland which executed this legal act. City authorities provided encouraged conditions despite financial problems. Education became priority in work of municipality. The organizer of general teaching in Łódź was Stefan Kopciński M.D., chief of municipal Department of Education and Culture.
   In the period 1918-1939 in Łódź existed 112–164 public primary schools. Classes was very numerous (over 50 students). Initially, education was realized by two-shift system because there were shortages of classes and qualifi ed pedagogical staff. Schools were co-educational (to 1923/1924). Among the public schools there existed schools with German language of teaching and schools for the Jewish children. This system adapted education for needs of nation’s minority.
   Irrespective of public education, there were private schools, maintained by persons and organizations. The number of private schools fluctuated from nearly 50 to 100; 95 percent of students of private schools accounted the Jewish nation children.

   Małgorzata Łapa, The electrification of Lodz's province in the period of 1919-1939

   The electrification, which has the influence on development of the country in general, was one of the priori ty economic undertakings of prewar Poland. Considerable development in the range of energetics had place at the territory of Lodz’s province in this period. Large fragmentation of power stations was typical for the region. 257 power stations in total in 1936 operate there (53 existed in 1930), from which 197 were very small (their power in total reached 5,27 MV and production – 5,6 kWh). However in the scale of the country it retreated different areas. Significant is fact, that number of consumption of electricity in Lodz city, on the background of different larger cities in the Republic of Poland, stayed on a very low level and in 1937 reached 27,8 kWh on every single inhabitant.
   In the whole of this period the biggest were power stations in Lodz, next in Zgierz, in Piotrkow, in Kalisz, in Pabianice, in Tomaszow Mazowiecki and in Radomsko.
   To the number of the largest power stations, built in the period of 1928-1938 belonged: industrial power station at the sugar factory in Leśmierz (1928), industrial heat and power generating plant at the “Gentelman” – British-Swedish-Polish rubber industry plant in Lodz (1936) and heat and power generating plant at the “Boruta” chemical plant in Zgierz (1938).

   Włodzimierz Kozłowski, Colonel engineer January Grzędziński, commander of 30th Regiment Gunmen of Kaniów between 1932-1934. The attempt at the biography of the officer, the journalist, the writer and the oppositionist

   January Grzędziński was actively engaged in work for independence of Poland. He served in the Polish Legions During the WW 1. He rendered the huge services to organization of the Polish Air Forces. Then he commanded the 30th infantry regiment in Warsaw as a part of the 10th Infantry Division (headquarters in Łódź). He received the highest battle and state decorations. In the end of period of independence he was in political opposition to the government camp. He was one of the cofounders of the oppositional Democratic Party. He organized the Polish Army in France during the WW 2. Then he was interned in Marocco. The years 1945–1957 he live as emigrant. After his return to Poland he published several books. He was the journalist, writer and editor. The government of the Polish People’s Republic repressed him for his oppositional activity. He died in 1975 in Warsaw at age 87.

   Arkadiusz Rzepkowski, The territorial origin of foreign population and its role in economical development of Pabianice in the first period of industrial era until 1865

   The most important thing at the beginning of the industrial development of Pabianice was the inflowing population, particularly the newcomers from outside of the Polish Kingdom. Pabianice, as the result of migration, reformed in the first half of XIX century from a monoethnic city into a conglomerate of different nationalities and confessions. In the first the phaze of the industrial development in Pabianice there was a repeated growth in the occupants’ number there. Mostly it was caused by the immigration from outside of the Polish Kingdom. The immigrants’ inflow to Pabianice and other towns, which created the later industrial centre in Łódź region, began in the twenties of XIX century. The immigration was stimulated by settlement policy run by the Polish Kingdom. On September 18, 1820 Pabianice became the town appointed by the decree of the governor of the Polish Kingdom (gen. Józef Zajączek) as the one to accept the incoming settlers.
   The immigrants coming from beyond the Polish Kingdom, arriving to Pabianice, left the Austrian Empire (the northern part of Czech) or the Kingdom of Saxony. The newcomers from the Kingdom of Prussia made up a significant group when we take their number under the consideration (including the area of Silesia and the Great Duchy of Poznań). The immigrants came from Bavaria, Baden and Wurttemberg too. People from France or Russia appeared rarely there.
   The settlers created weaver’s workshops that transformed into manufactories later and then into textile factories. The Kruche’s, the greatest family of manufacturers in Pabianice, followed that way.

   Breeding stock of farm in Piaski of 1755. The attempt to draft the history of dominican wealth fare in Sieradz of 18th century – elaborated and prepared by Grzegorz Wierzchowski

   This published source was found by G. Wierzchowski in the Diocesan Archives in Wloclawek. It is a presentation of the Piaski farm’s inventory from 1755. The Order of Preacher Friars (Dominican Monks) in Sieradz received the Piaski farm in 1628 from Jakub Piaskowski.
   The source presents the state of livestock: horses, oxes, sheep etc. properties localised on the farm. It is a good comparative source for economic history in the modern ages.

   The memoire of Franciszek Łukomski from January Uprising from the collection of Kórnicka Library of PAN – elaborated and prepared by Łukasz Jastrząb

   In the collection of the library of the Polish Academy of Science in Kornik there is a diary of Franciszek Lukomski, a „January Uprising” insurgent, handed over by his grandson, Lech Lukomski.
   F. Lukomski joined the uprising in July 1863. He faught under the command of general Edmund Taczanowski, among others: in Zloczew battle and in Kruszyna battle, where he was wounded. Later, he was imprisoned by the tsar authorities in Pawiak prison. He died in 1919 in Lodz.
   The diary describes a battle track of the military division of F. Lukomski and is an interesting source of information on January Uprisimg in Poland.


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