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Oddział Łódzki PTH

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Instytut Historii UŁ

Przegląd Nauk Historycznych

Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia historica

TOM 58, 2011


   Professor Stanisław Marian Zajączkowski. The Honorary Member of Polish Historical Society On the occasion of his 80th birthday and 55th anniversary of the academic career (Jan Szymczak)

   Stanisław Marian Zajączkowski was born on 7 July 1931 in Lvov (today: Lviv in Ukraine) as a son of Maria née Kramer and Stanisław Franciszek Zajączkowski, Professor of history at the University of Stephen Batory in Vilnius (Lithuania today). After WW2 he settled down in Łódź, where, following his father’s interests, he studied history in 1950-1955. A year later he became an assistant in the Institute of History at the University of Łódź, where he pursued his academic career. In 1990 he was awarded the title of Professor. In 2001 he retired but remained an active participant of the academic life.
   Professor Zajączkowski’s bibliography consists of 125 items, among which there are eight books. He deals with two fields of studies. The first one concerns Central Poland in the Middle Ages. Many of his works are devoted to the possessions of the gentry and the history of towns and villages. The most prominent titles concern: Bielawy, Brodnia, Burzenin, Chełmo, Dąbrowice, Grzegorzew, Kamieńsk, Koniecpol, Krośniewice, Lutomiersk, Łask, Łęczyca, Łódź, Małecz, Oporów, Orłów, Rozprza, Sędziejowice, Turek, Wolbórz, Zgierz, Żychlin, Żytno. S. M. Zajączkowski also researched into the dominions of archbishops of Gniezno and bishops of Włocławek, manors of Cracow collegiate in Łęczyca and Sieradz. The other field of his studies is military history, especially military duties of medieval peasants.
   Professor Zajączkowski supervised 180 M.A. theses and 3 Ph.D. dissertations. He had many administrative posts, being the director of the Institute of History in 1996-1999 and the Chair of Polish Medieval History in 1982-2001. In 2004 he became the honorary member of Polish Historical Society, which he joined in 1963.
   Ad multos annos, Dear Professor!

   Marzena Iwańska, The daily life of the intelligentsia of Lodz in the 19th and 20th centuries. Some pictures

   Selected issues concerning daily life of the Lodz intelligentsia (white collar class) in the 2nd half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century are examined in this article. According to analyzed sources conditions of work and difficulties of professional life appear as the most important problems. The political and social terms under the Russian power were unfavourable for the intelligentsia. The daily life of that class was connected with opressial political system. Members of intelligentsia usually faced many dillemmas if they tried to secure good economic and cultural conditions for themselves and for their families.

   Włodzimierz Berner, Professional, social and scientific activity of Łódź dermatologists and venereologists at the time of the Second Republic of Poland

   At the time of the Second Republic of Poland in the city of Łódź, dermatologists and venereologists played an important role in rendering medical services to the city population. At the turn of the years 1918 and 1919, there were 18 specialists in this field, in 1925 – 35, and in 1938 – 43. Doctors treating cutaneous and venereal diseases were employed in the municipal (self-governmental), insurance, state, social (charitable), and private health service institutions working in hospitals (specialist, general) and existing ambulatories, independent one- and multi-specialty outpatient departments (also of a cooperative character) and private clinics. The doctors shared their professional knowledge and experience with other colleagues at the scientific and informative meetings of the Łódź Division of the Polish Dermatological Society and the Łódź Medical Society. They demonstrated there interesting clinical cases of diseases (frequently with patients’ participation) and delivered lectures, many of which were published not only in Polish but also in French, German, and Swedish periodicals. The dermatologists and venereologists of the city of Łódź also participated in Polish and foreign dermatological conferences. Such doctors as Emanuel Sonnenberg, Samuel Nuemark, Jakub Leyberg, Adam Grosglik and Abram Kryński belonged to the most outstanding dermatolo-gists of those times with the greatest scientific achievements. Dr Feliks Skusiewicz should be also mentioned among those remarkable medical professionals, because he distinguished himself as an excellent educator giving popular talks and lectures on health subjects to inhabitants of the city.

   Małgorzata Przeniosło, Habilitations in the Second Republic of Poland (on the examples of mathematicians)

   In Poland between the Wars a habilitation was the procedure for receiving the law for giving lectures in the academic high school. The law was conferred by committees of faculties of such schools and confirmed by the Minister of Education. A candidate for a habilitation had to have a doctor’s degree and one published paper. This dissertation was evaluated by two reviewers. Another publications were not required but they could be taken into consideration by reviewers. Usually, the candidates had a few articles. The most clever young persons working in the academic high school had more than twenty publications, for example among mathematicians Karol Borsuk at the University of Warsaw, Władysław Orlicz (University of Lvov) and Józef Marcinkiewicz (University of Vilnius).

   Maria Nartonowicz-Kot, The Revolution 1905 in the Tradition of the Polish Socialist Movement of the Second Republic of Poland

   The events of the revolution of 1905 constituted an important phenomena for polish socialists during the interwar-time, frequently used by them to create the identity and autonomy of the socialist movement. An important role in this process played the Association of Former Political Prisoners, created in 1919, which covered with its influence the whole country. The association mentioned above was personally and ideologically strongly related to the Polish Socialist Party. Its main activities were: fighting for improvement of material being of former political prisoners, helping them to find an employment, cultivating the memory of revolution´s heroes and looking after the execution places of fighters for independence and socialist ideology.
   Polish Socialists presented a very positive attitude toward the Revolution of 1905 itself and the people who made it; each anniversary, especially the "round" ones in 1925 and 1930 were celebrated in a very solemn way. The marches, rallies, manifestations, lectures and ceremonies were organised; the devotion for democratic idea was widely demonstrated.

   Jarosław Jastrzębski, Organization of the Chamber of Crafts in Łódź in the years 1927-1939

   This article aims to present the most relevant facts concerning the organization of the Chamber of Crafts in Łódź in the interwar period and the direction of its evolution. Chronological range is limited on the one hand the creation date of the Chamber and the entry into force of a uniform law for the whole Polish industry in 1927 and, second, the outbreak of war in 1939. Work is essentially the source and is based on an analysis of state laws from the years 1927-1939. The article is divided into twelve chapters.
   At the outset briefly present the circumstances of the Chamber of Crafts in Łódź and the reasons for the nationwide industrial law. It then discusses basic legal sources relevant to the topic of work and issues related to the establishment of the Statute of the Chamber and its changes. Further objects of discussion was the scope of activities of the Chamber, where notable trend was the constant expansion of the competence of the Chamber. Also discussed relations with the craft guilds and the territorial area of the Chamber. We analyzed the structural organization of the Chmaber, with a discussion of the scope of activity of its main organs of authority: Assembly of Members, then replaced by the Meeting of Councillors, the Board, Secretary, subsequently replaced by the Director, the committee of general, examination and the election and the Faculty of Apprentices. For each of these bodies shows its structure, method of selecting and competence, with a particularly thorough and extensive treatment of the supreme authority of the Łódź Chamber – Meeting of Members (Councillors), emerge in popular vote conducted among the craftsmen of the Łódź Region. At the same time if all members of the Chmbers came from the election, it has only councillors in the majority, because the Minister of Industry and Trade has the independent power to appoint an part of them. The article ends with a summary of the observable trends in organizational Chamber of Crafts in Łódź, which is permanently inscribed in the history of Łódź and its region.

   Włodzimierz Kozłowski, The commanders of the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment (Warsaw; the 2nd Battalion in Tomaszów Mazowiecki until november 1924) 1918-1939. The attempt of characterization. Part II, 1936-1939

   In November 1918 Poland regained her independence after 123 years of slavery. During the years 1918-1921 the fights for new Polish borders took place. In the period 1921-1939 the state was divided into 10 Military Districts with IV Military District (Łódź) among them. Three infantry divisions were located in this region. One of them was the 10th Infantry Division with headquartes in Łódź.
   In the period of peace the 10th Infantry Division composed of 3 infantry regiments (28th, 30th, 31st) and the 10th light artillery regiment. Following commanders of the 30th infantry regiment in the period (1921-1939) were officers in the ranks of lieutenant colonel and colonel. The article presents their military education, battle merits, age, period of military service in Warsaw, battle and military decorations and following lots - till their deaths.
   In the period 1936-1939 the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment was commanded by 2 officers. Both of them were the lieutenant colonels: Stanisław Rutkowski and Włodzimierz Szmyd. The first of them had higher military education. A short time before the WW 2 he was sent to the headquarters of Army „Łódź”. The second of the presented commanders, W. Szmyd, got into nervous shock in the beginning of the Polish-German War. He had to left the regiment. During the military operation in September 1939 the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment was temporarily commanded by major Bronisław Kamiński. He was killed during the defence of Warsaw.
   In September 1939 the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment fought with Germans as a part of Army „Łódź”. The many of the soldiers from this regiment were active in conspiracy and they fought on the fronts of the World War 2.

   Krzysztof Lesiakowski, Share of structures of „Solidarnosc” in Lodz in all-Polish Trade Union activity

   Structures of “Solidarnosc” in Lodz had a great influence on many areas of functioning of whole Trade Union. In this point it’s worth to say about development of branches structures, breakout line of government resistance if it comes to creation units of Trade Union among civil workers of Ministry of the Interior, or support for students demanding their own, self-sustaining organization. Local structures of Trade Union also had an ambition to affect on conception of schedule whole Trade Union. This aspirations had born fruit in the form of two large conferences concerning this problem (December 1980, July 1981). Members of this community opted for changes in system of government, deep economic reforms which would be connected with self-reliance of enterprises and local government extension. Estimating that local governments would start their work a few months after creation, Lodz no longer than in half of 1981 opted for active strike, which main task was organisation of production and distribution articles under control of strike committee. This conceptions weren’t forced only in Lodz, but structures of “Solidarnosc” in region of Lodz had a great influence on them. All in all that circumstances and growing dislike for Walesa and his advisers effected that on the last months of 1981, structures of “Solidarnosc” in Lodz were one of the most radical in Poland.

   Leszek Olejnik, Region of Lodz society towards the martial law

   Article shows attitudes of society of Lodz Region to martial law. Martial law surprised the whole polish society. In the night from 12th to 13th December 1981 officers of Citizens' Militia and Security Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs started the action of internment of eminent oppositionists and activists from Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity". Many different restrictions of public life were introduced e.g. the activity of trade unions was suspended. Response to events was mainly resistance, but also many people have adapted to new conditions enforced by government.
   Despite of restrictions unionists of “Solidarity” started industrial actions. The first was on 13th December in the head office of Region Board of "Solidarity" in Lodz. Next day in nearly fourty work places strikes and industrial actions took place. On the streets of Lodz many clashes between demonstrators and militia and Motorized Reserves of the Citizens' Militia happened. All of these actions were put down. Although secret structures of trade unions began to rise. Conspiratorial press also existed. Society in many different ways opposed to government policy. Decreased members of ruling Party (PZPR) and unwillingness to new trade unions are evidences of state opinion.
   Martial law was lifted July 22, 1983, after 586 days.

   Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak, Letters from the Ghetto of Tomaszów Mazowiecki as a historical source documenting the Jewish artistic life during the Nazi occupation

   The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington keeps 100 letters from the Ghetto of Tomaszów Mazowiecki written by Israel Aliuhe (“Lutek”) Orenbach (1919-1942) to his beloved Edith Blau. These largely unknown letters constitute an interesting artefact which documents not only the author’s emotional and psychological state of the author, but also numerous aspects of everyday life of Jewish inhabitants of Tomaszów Mazowiecki (from 1939 until 1941). Lutek Orenbach was a clerk of the Jewish community in the Tomaszów Ghetto and was well acquainted with common problems of the Jews of his time. He was also an artist, who created a number of caricatures of his relatives, friends and eminent persons of the Tomaszów Ghetto. Among Lutek’s friends there were Henoch (Henryk) Barczyński (1896-1941), Wolf (Władysław) Rejder and other Jewish painters. In 1940 Orenbach co-created a theatre (“Klein Kunsttheater”) in the Tomaszów Ghetto. Despite of the fact that in his letters to Edith Lutek Orenbach avoided drastic and pessimistic narrative elements, his psycho-physical sufferings emerge in numerous phrases. The texts give an extensive description of his family and friends, as well as that of Jews’ everyday life under the Nazi occupation.
   This paper focuses on the following issues: (1) the genesis and character of the correspondence between Lutek Orenbach and Edith Blau; (2) the circumstances and problems pertinent to the preservation of the letters from the Tomaszów Ghetto; (3) Lutek’s interpersonal and family relations; (4) the activities of the artistic group of painters in the Tomaszów Ghetto; (5) the organization of the Klein Kunsttheater by Lutek Orenbach and theatrical events in the Ghetto. It is concluded that Lutek Orenbach’s letters are of special historic value as a source of information, a source which meticulously registers many aspects of the Jewish artistic life in the Ghetto of Tomaszów Mazowiecki.

   Łukasz Orzechowski, Lodz Society of Friends of Lviv and the South-East Borderlands between 1989-2009

   The article is devoted lodz division of Polish the non-governmental organisation – Towarzystwo Miłośników Lwowa i Kresów Południowo Wschodnich (the Association of Friends of Lviv and the South Eastern Borderlands.
   The main aims and objectives of the Association is to collect knowledge about Lviv and past southern parts of the former borderlands of Second Polish Republic.
   The article presents the genesis of the lodz division of the Association. It shows the history of its members: the road from the South-Eastern Borderlands to Łódź and acclimatisation in new place of abode.
   The article describes the former and the current activities of the division, both in the arena of regional and nationwide.

   Anna Kaniewska, The users of the archival holdings of the State Archive in Lodz in yeras 1996-2006

   The purpose of this article is to describe the users of the archival founds within the period 1996-2006. The work was based on the statistical annual reports and the information from the database called SUMA.
   The article is divided in two parts. In the first part data concerning amount of people who visited the reading rooms and used the archival materials were presented (taking into account their nationality, kind of scientific institution they were working for and type of research works which were created and based on the archival materials). In the second part the most often used archival founds were described, and also the amount of the archival units used by users in the years 1996-1999.

   Jerzy Skoracki, Liquidation of Artificial Fibre Plant Wistom. Misery or Inevitable Necessity?

   The article presents the economic and social reasons for the liquidation of the largest plant producing chemical fibers. It includes a lot of data to justify such a decision. The closing part presents the positive social effects of the liquidation of the outdated factory.


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